In Romania, the word for church both as a building and as an institution is biserică, derived from the term basilica. J.-C.. Les premières basiliques construites à Rome durant le IIe siècle av. [12] Unlike in Gaul, basilica-forum complexes in Roman Britain did not usually include a temple; instead a shrine was usually inside the basilica itself. [42] Pope Vigilius fled there from Constantinople during the Three-Chapter Controversy. Ce type d'édifice, offrant un vaste espace abrité et dégagé, acquiert une importance particulière à partir du début du IIe siècle av. [7] Adjoining it there were normally various offices and rooms housing the curia and a shrine for the tutela. [citation needed], In the late Republican era, basilicas were increasingly monumental; Julius Caesar replaced the Basilica Sempronia with his own Basilica Julia, dedicated in 46 BC, while the Basilica Aemilia was rebuilt around 54 BC in so spectacular a fashion that Pliny the Elder wrote that it was among the most beautiful buildings in the world (it was simultaneously renamed the Basilica Paulli). 377. Elle peut accueillir 60 000 personnes et comprend 27 chapelles richement décorées. Like non-Christian or civic basilicas, basilica churches had a commercial function integral to their local trade routes and economies. Le mot « basilique », dérivant du latin basilica, est formé à partir de deux éléments grecs, basileus qui signifie « roi » et le suffixe d’adjectif féminin -ikê. Constantine's basilica at Trier, the Aula Palatina (AD 306), is still standing. [13] In 300 Londinium's basilica was destroyed as a result of the rebellion led by the augustus of the break-away Britannic Empire, Carausius. [73], Type of building in classical and church architecture, This article is about a form of building. Cet espace couvert est à l'origine un lieu de rencontre destiné à protéger diverses activités des intempéries et placé en bordure de l'espace public, l'agora. [36] During the sit-in, Augustine credits Ambrose with the introduction from the "eastern regions" of antiphonal chanting, to give heart to the orthodox congregation, though in fact music was likely part of Christian ritual since the time of the Pauline epistles. The Basilica Ulpia was composed of a great central nave with four side aisles, two on each side of the nave. Les Anciennes Basiliques et églises de Rome au XVe siècle book. Ces édifices sont richement décorés grâce aux objets d’art pris sur les royaumes vaincus[8]. [23] Traditional civic basilicas and bouleuteria declined in use with the weakening of the curial class (Latin: curiales) in the 4th and 5th centuries, while their structures were well suited to the requirements of congregational liturgies. [60] The Central Basilica replaced a synagogue on a site razed in the late 5th century, and there was also a North Basilica and further basilicas without the walls. J.-C. s'inspire de la stoa grecque (ἡ στοά), un portique fermé à l'arrière par un mur plein et ouvert en façade par une colonnade. [23] The conversion of these types of buildings into Christian basilicas was also of symbolic significance, asserting the dominance of Christianity and supplanting the old political function of public space and the city-centre with an emphatic Christian social statement. [3][31], Inside the basilica the central nave was accessed by five doors opening from an entrance hall on the eastern side and terminated in an apse at the western end. [59], Stobi, (Ancient Greek: Στόβοι, romanized: Stóboi) the capital from the late 4th century of the province of Macedonia II Salutaris, had numerous basilicas and six palaces in late antiquity. [13] Only the later basilica-forum complex at Treverorum was larger, while at Rome only the 525 foot (160 m) Basilica Ulpia exceeded London's in size. [65] According to Ahudemmeh's biographer this basilica and its martyrium, in the upper Tigris valley, was supposed to be a copy of the Basilica of St Sergius at Sergiopolis (Resafa), in the middle Euphrates, so that the Arabs would not have to travel so far on pilgrimage. Ce premier édifice, daté de la toute fin du IIIe siècle av. The building gave its name to the architectural form of the basilica. [43] The basilica, which lay outside the walls of Chalcedon, was destroyed by the Persians in the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628 during one of the Sasanian occupations of the city in 615 and 626. Palma Cathedral on Mallorca in Spain has windows on three levels, one above the aisles, one above the file of chapels and one in the chapels. Poursuivez jusqu'à la Basilique Saint Jean de Latran (San Giovanni in Laterano), cathédrale de Rome. Dans la Rome antique, la basilique suit la même évolution que la stoa grecque et, initialement prévue comme espace public à l'abri des intempéries, elle finit par se spécialiser dans certaines activités, essentiellement judiciaires, toutes les basiliques romaines servant pour l'administration de la justice [1]. [64], The Miaphysite convert from the Church of the East, Ahudemmeh constructed a new basilica c.565 dedicated to Saint Sergius at ʿAin Qenoye (or ʿAin Qena according to Bar Hebraeus) after being ordained bishop of Beth Arbaye by Jacob Baradaeus and while proselytizing among the Bedouin of Arbayistan in the Sasanian Empire. Er trat 1835 in den Dienst der Kurie und war Konsultor der Kongregation für Ablässe und die heiligen Reliquien , der Kongregation für außerordentliche kirchliche Angelegenheiten sowie des Heiligen Offiziums . rome: école française 2001. The basilica was in the Latin West equivalent to a stoa in the Greek East. [28] The 6th century Anonymous pilgrim of Piacenza described a "a basilica built with a quadriporticus, with the middle atrium uncovered" at Hebron, while at Pécs and near Salona two ruined 5th buildings of debated interpretation might have been either roofless basilica churches or simply courtyards with an exedra at the end. Basilica of Sant'Apollinare in Classe near Ravenna in Italy. The first basilicas with transepts were built under the orders of Emperor Constantine, both in Rome and in his "New Rome", Constantinople: Around 380, Gregory Nazianzen, describing the Constantinian Church of the Holy Apostles at Constantinople, was the first to point out its resemblance to a cross. [6] In the imperial period, statues of the emperors with inscribed dedications were often installed near the basilicas' tribunals, as Vitruvius recommended. In (and often also in front of) the apse was a raised platform, where the altar was placed, and from where the clergy officiated. [24] This basilica, begun in 313, was the first imperial Christian basilica. This forecourt was entered from outside through a range of buildings along the public street. Because the cult of the cross was spreading at about the same time, this comparison met with stunning success. The Latin word basilica derives from Ancient Greek: βασιλική στοά, romanized: basilikè stoá, lit. These rooms were typically a high nave flanked by colonnades. [35] (Constantine had disbanded the Praetorian guard after his defeat of their emperor Maxentius and replaced them with another bodyguard, the Scholae Palatinae. [16], In early 123, the augusta and widow of the emperor Trajan, Pompeia Plotina died. [51], The largest and oldest basilica churches in Egypt were at Pbow, a coenobitic monastery established by Pachomius the Great in 330. [31] Another, shallower apse with niches for statues was added to the centre of the north wall in a second campaign of building, while the western apse housed a colossal acrolithic statue of the emperor Constantine enthroned. There were several variations of the basic plan of the secular basilica, always some kind of rectangular hall, but the one usually followed for churches had a central nave with one aisle at each side and an apse at one end opposite to the main door at the other end. J.-C., les nouvelles basiliques Porcia, Æmilia et Sempronia construites autour du Forum sont désignées par le nom du censeur commanditaire de leur construction[2]. [24] Outside the basilica was the Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius, a rare example of an Antique statue that has never been underground. Ruins of the 10th century Church of Achillius of Larissa, on the eponymous island of Agios Achilleios, Mikra Prespa. [48], At Constantinople, Justinian constructed the largest domed basilica: on the site of the 4th century basilica Church of Holy Wisdom, the emperor ordered construction of the huge domed basilica that survives to the present: the Hagia Sophia. Basilique de Maxence et Constantin à Rome, construite entre le Forum Romain et le Colisée au début du IVe siècle av. La basilique romaine suit habituellement un plan au sol rectangulaire dont au moins une extrémité est occupée par une abside servant de tribunal[5] ou abritant la statue de l'empereur romain[6]. [69] Constantine built a basilica of this type in his palace complex at Trier, later very easily adopted for use as a church. Plan de la basilique Ulpia sur la Forma Urbis. Justinian I constructed at Ephesus a large basilica church, the Basilica of St John, above the supposed tomb of John the Apostle. [48] Somewhat outside the ancient city on the hill of Selçuk, the Justinianic basilica became the centre of the city after the 7th century Arab–Byzantine wars. [13] Londinium's basilica, more than 500 feet (150 m) long, was the largest north of the Alps and a similar length to the modern St Paul's Cathedral. [24] The versatility of the basilica form and its variability in size and ornament recommended itself to the early Christian Church: basilicas could be grandiose as the Basilica of Maxentius in the Forum Romanum or more practical like the so-called Basilica of Bahira in Bosra, while the Basilica Constantiniana on the Lateran Hill was of intermediate scale. Clustered columns emphasised the "crossing" of the two axes. [27][30], According to Vegetius, writing c. 390, basilicas were convenient for drilling soldiers of the Late Roman army during inclement weather. Hadrian, successor to Trajan, deified her and had a basilica constructed in her honour in southern Gaul. [65] This policy itself encouraged many tribes to favour the Persian cause, especially after the death in 569 of the Ghassanid Kingdom's Miaphysite king al-Harith ibn Jabalah (Latin: Flavius Arethas, Ancient Greek: Ἀρέθας) and the 584 suppression by the Romans of his successors' dynasty.[65]. [26] The basilica at Ephesus's Magnesian Gate, the episcopal church at Laodicea on the Lycus, and two extramural churches at Sardis have all been considered 4th century constructions, but on weak evidence. La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 7 novembre 2020 à 11:23. It is a long rectangle two storeys high, with ranks of arch-headed windows one above the other, without aisles (there was no mercantile exchange in this imperial basilica) and, at the far end beyond a huge arch, the apse in which Constantine held state. Putting an altar instead of the throne, as was done at Trier, made a church. The central aisle – the nave – tended to be wider and taller than the flanking aisles, so that light could penetrate through the clerestory windows. Outre les 4 basiliques majeures, Rome compte plus d'une soixantaine de basiliques mineures, plus que n'importe quelle autre ville au monde (la ville qui en compte le plus après Rome, Buenos Aires en Argentine, n'en compte que 15). [60] The Old Basilica had two phases of geometric pavements, the second phase of which credited the bishop Eustathios as patron of the renovations. [25], Basilica churches were not economically inactive. On Crete, the Roman cities suffered from repeated earthquakes in the 4th century, but between c. 450 and c. 550, a large number of Christian basilicas were constructed. The marble was especially valuable in the medieval and early modern eras for burning into lime, a material used to make mortar. Une basilique civile, ou simplement basilique (en latin : basilica), désigne durant l'Antiquité un grand édifice public destiné à abriter des activités commerciales, financières et judiciaires. Certaines stoae ont acquis une spécialisation fonctionnelle avec le temps, comme la stoa basileios d'Athènes qui devient le siège de l'archonte roi. [...] leurs fonctions dans la Basilique qui lui est dédiée, [...] et accorde son aide et son réconfort à tous les fidèles et aux pèlerins qui, avec une dévotion sincère, se rendent dans le lieu saint élevé en mémoire de son martyre, pour raviver leur foi et invoquer sa protection sur leur chemin de sanctification et sur l'engagement de l'Eglise, pour la diffusion de l'Evangile dans le monde contemporain. Par la suite, le terme « basilique » a aussi désigné une église catholique distinguée par le pape, parce qu'elle était le lieu d'un pèlerinage. Watch Queue Queue [3] Domitian constructed a basilica on the Palatine Hill for his imperial residential complex around 92 AD, and a palatine basilica was typical in imperial palaces throughout the imperial period. Amphorae discovered at basilicas attest their economic uses and can reveal their position in wider networks of exchange. [3], Beginning with the Forum of Caesar (Latin: forum Iulium) at the end of the Roman Republic, the centre of Rome was embellished with a series of imperial fora typified by a large open space surrounded by a peristyle, honorific statues of the imperial family (gens), and a basilica, often accompanied by other facilities like a temple, market halls and public libraries. [6] The earliest surviving basilica is the basilica of Pompeii, built 120 BC. [24] Known as the Megiddo church, it was built at Kefar 'Othnay in Palestine, possibly c. 230, for or by the Roman army stationed at Legio (later Lajjun). La lutte des plébéiens pour l'égalité "Nous sommes citoyens, comme les patriciens. Elle est l'église principale du Catholicisme, son centre spirituel et aussi la plus grande. 310. [3] Another early example is the basilica at Pompeii (late 2nd century BC). A peculiar type of basilica, known as three-church basilica, was developed in early medieval Georgia, characterised by the central nave which is completely separated from the aisles with solid walls.[70]. [71][72] Basilica churches are distinguished for ceremonial purposes from other churches. Le plan de la basilique civile romaine a servi de modèle à la fin de l'Antiquité pour la construction des premières églises chrétiennes, d'où l'utilisation du terme « basilique » pour désigner certaines églises depuis l'époque de Constantin. [64] The basilicas were associated with cemeteries with Christian inscriptions and burials. [31] The foundations are as much as 8 m deep. Finally visit the Basilica of St John Lateran, cathedral of the Bishop of Rome. Old St Peter's, Rome, as the 4th-century basilica had developed by the mid-15th century, in a 19th-century reconstruction, St John in the Lateran is both an architectural and an ecclesiastical basilica, Romanesque basilica of nowadays Lutheran Bursfelde Abbey in Germany, Chester Cathedral in England, a Gothic style basilica, St. Sebald's in Nuremberg has a basilical nave and a hall choir. [24] Other influences on the evolution of Christian basilicas may have come from elements of domestic and palatial architecture during the pre-Constantinian period of Christianity, including the reception hall or aula (Ancient Greek: αὐλή, romanized: aulḗ, lit. [26] This basilica, which "continues to stand as one of the most visually imposing and architecturally daring churches in the Mediterranean", was the cathedral of Constantinople and the patriarchal church of the Patriarch of Constantinople. basilique Saint Jean de Latran n. Basilica of Saint John Lateran. [48][61] The Ephesians' basilicas to St Mary and St John were both equipped with baptisteries with filling and draining pipes: both fonts were flush with the floor and unsuitable for infant baptism. Ostrogothic Basilica of Christ the Redeemer, Ravenna, 504. A Christian basilica of the 4th or 5th century stood behind its entirely enclosed forecourt ringed with a colonnade or arcade, like the stoa or peristyle that was its ancestor or like the cloister that was its descendant. [3] They were simpler and smaller than were civic basilicas, and can be identified by inscriptions or their position in the archaeological context. Its reception or audience hall is a long rectangular nave-like space, flanked by dependent rooms that mostly also open into one another, ending in a semi-circular apse, with matching transept spaces. [2] The early churches of Rome were basilicas with an apisidal tribunal and used the same construction techniques of columns and timber roofing. A noter qu'elle n'est pas la cathédrale de Rome puisque c'est Saint Jean de Latran qui assure cette fonction. In the Roman Imperial period (after about 27 BC), a basilica for large audiences also became a feature in palaces. [9] In the eastern cemetery of Hierapolis the 5th century domed octagonal martyrium of Philip the Apostle was built alongside a basilica church, while at Myra the Basilica of St Nicholas was constructed at the tomb of Saint Nicholas. Drawing of the 5th century Church of the Acheiropoietos by Charles Texier, 1864. A newer episcopal basilica was built by the bishop Philip atop the remains of the earlier structure, and two further basilicas were within the walls. [16] The vault was supported by brick latticework ribs (Latin: bipedalis) forming lattice ribbing, an early form of rib vault, and distributing the load evenly across the vault's span. [24] Similarly, the name and association resounded with the Christian claims of the royalty of Christ – according to the Acts of the Apostles the earliest Christians had gathered at the royal Stoa of Solomon in Jerusalem to assert Jesus's royal heritage. [26] Thus was lost an important part of the early history of Christian art, which would have sought to communicate early Christian ideas to the mainly illiterate Late Antique society. [17], The Basilica Hilariana (built c.145–155) was designed for the use of the cult of Cybele. [25] According to the 6th century Syriac writer John of Ephesus, a Syriac Orthodox Christian, the heterodox Miaphysites held ordination services in the courtyard of the Basilica of St John under cover of night. [36] At Easter in 386 the Arian party, preferred by the Theodosian dynasty, sought to wrest the use of the basilica from the Nicene partisan Ambrose. (collection de l'école française de rome 283). In the United States the style was copied with variances. Welcome to the official website of the National Basilica of the Sacred Heart in Koekelberg! [53] Generally, North African basilica churches' altars were in the nave and the main building medium was opus africanum of local stone, and spolia was infrequently used. [15][3] Trajan's Forum (Latin: forum Traiani) was separated from the Temple of Trajan, the Ulpian Library, and his famous Column depicting the Dacian Wars by the Basilica. J.-C. s’inspirent du modèle grec tel qu'il a été vu lors des campagnes romaines en Macédoine et en Syrie. [54], A Christian basilica was constructed in the first half of the 5th century at Olympia, where the statue of Zeus by Phidias had been noted as one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World ever since the 2nd century BC list compiled by Antipater of Sidon. [19] The basilica stood in a new forum and was accompanied by a programme of Severan works at Leptis including thermae, a new harbour, and a public fountain. In the 3rd century of the Christian era, the governing elite appeared less frequently in the forums. [60] Various mosaics and sculptural decorations have been found there, and while the city suffered from the Ostrogoths in 479 and an earthquake in 518, ceasing to be a major city thereafter, it remained a bishopric until the end of the 7th century and the Basilica of Philip had its templon restored in the 8th century.[60]. Le texte du Vœu placé dans la Basilique est le suivant : « En présence des malheurs qui désolent la France et des malheurs plus grands peut-être qui la menacent encore. [23] The mosaics of the floor credit Optimus, the bishop, with its dedication. The Basilica Julia was partially destroyed in 410 AD when the Visigoths sacked Rome and the site slowly fell into ruin over the centuries. In the Catholic Church, a basilica is a large and important church building. [28], The magnificence of early Christian basilicas reflected the patronage of the emperor and recalled his imperial palaces and reflected the royal associations of the basilica with the Hellenistic Kingdoms and even earlier monarchies like that of Pharaonic Egypt. traducción basilique Saint Jean de Latran del frances al ingles, diccionario Frances - Ingles, ver también , ejemplos, conjugación Read reviews from world’s largest community for readers. [2], The plays of Plautus suggest that basilica buildings may have existed prior to Cato's building. A typical basilica church.[67]. It continues to be used in an architectural sense to describe rectangular buildings with a central nave and aisles, and usually a raised platform at the opposite end from the door. [2], At the start of the 4th century at Rome there was a change in burial and funerary practice, moving away from earlier preferences for inhumation in cemeteries – popular from the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD – to the newer practice of burial in catacombs and inhumation inside Christian basilicas themselves. EMBED. [12], When Londinium became a colonia, the whole city was re-planned and a new great forum-basilica complex erected, larger than any in Britain. Aisleless church with wallside pilasters, a barrel-vault and upper windows above lateral chapels. The first great Imperially sponsored Christian basilica is that of St John Lateran, which was given to the Bishop of Rome by Constantine right before or around the Edict of Milan in 313 and was consecrated in the year 324. [21] New religions like Christianity required space for congregational worship, and the basilica was adapted by the early Church for worship. [35] After Constantine's failure to resolve the Donatist controversy by coercion between 317 and 321, he allowed the Donatists, who dominated Africa, to retain the basilica and constructed a new one for the Catholic Church. La Basilique Saint Pierre de Rome. Hagia Sophia, Serdica (Sofia), built 4th–8th centuries. Examples of such dedicatory inscriptions are known from basilicas at Lucus Feroniae and Veleia in Italy and at Cuicul in Africa Proconsolaris, and inscriptions of all kinds were visible in and around basilicas. Dans la Rome antique, la basilique suit la même évolution que la stoa grecque et, initialement prévue comme espace public à l'abri des intempéries, elle finit par se spécialiser dans certaines activités, essentiellement judiciaires, toutes les basiliques romaines servant pour l'administration de la justice[1]. Les absides, ou exèdres, peuvent être incluses dans le plan rectangulaire ou l'étendre comme dans le cas de la basilique Ulpia[5]. Si nous n'avons pas les mêmes richesses, nous avons la même patrie qu'eux. Basilicas of this type were built in western Europe, Greece, Syria, Egypt, and Palestine, that is, at any early centre of Christianity. Chaque ville romaine développée possède une basilique, souvent située à proximité immédiate du forum. [6] At Volubilis, principal city of Mauretania Tingitana, a basilica modelled on Leptis Magna's was completed during the short reign of Macrinus. Les vestiges des murs dessinent le plan du bâtiment. Elle est l'église principale du Catholicisme, son centre spirituel et aussi la plus grande. [24] However, because of its remote position from the Forum Romanum on the city's edge, it did not connect with the older imperial basilicas in the fora of Rome. [66] The name of the modern site Qasr Serīj is derived from the basilica's dedication to St Sergius. [54], In eastern Syria, the Church of the East developed at typical pattern of basilica churches. Hall church: All vaults are almost on the same level. La Basilique Saint Pierre de Rome. 'warden of a temple') and had constructed a Temple of the Sebastoi to the Flavian dynasty. En présence des attentats sacrilèges commis à Rome contre les droits de l’Eglise et du Saint Siège, et contre la personne sacrée du vicaire de Jésus Christ. [26], Around 310, while still a self-proclaimed augustus unrecognised at Rome, Constantine began the construction of the Basilica Constantiniana or Aula Palatina, 'palatine hall', as a reception hall for his imperial seat at Trier (Augusta Treverorum), capital of Belgica Prima. [23] Pisidia had a number of Christian basilicas constructed in Late Antiquity, particularly in former bouleuteria, as at Sagalassos, Selge, Pednelissus, while a civic basilica was converted for Christians' use in Cremna. [...] [27] At Dion near Mount Olympus in Macedonia, now an Archaeological Park, the latter 5th century Cemetery Basilica, a small church, was replete with potsherds from all over the Mediterranean, evidencing extensive economic activity took place there. Chef d'oeuvre de la Renaissance et du Baroque, elle représente le renouveau de la Ville Eternelle. Corona Update : 23 October 2020. [50] The Basilica of the Virgin Mary was probably the venue for the 431 Council of Ephesus and the 449 Second Council of Ephesus, both convened by Theodosius II. [58], Nine basilica churches were built at Nea Anchialos, ancient Phthiotic Thebes (Ancient Greek: Θη̑βαι Φθιώτιδες, romanized: Τhḗbai Phthiṓtides), which was in its heyday the primary port of Thessaly. [53], The Church of the East's Council of Seleucia-Ctesiphon was convened by the Sasanian Emperor Yazdegerd I at his capital at Ctesiphon; according to Synodicon Orientale, the emperor ordered that the former churches in the Sasanian Empire to be restored and rebuilt, that such clerics and ascetics as had been imprisoned were to be released, and their Nestorian Christian communities allowed to circulate freely and practice openly. The basilica was centrally located in every Roman town, usually adjacent to the forum and often opposite a temple in imperial-era forums. J.-C. ne porte pas de nom et est simplement baptisé basilica par les auteurs antiques[2],[a 2]. [24], In the late 4th century the dispute between Nicene and Arian Christianity came to head at Mediolanum (Milan), where Ambrose was bishop. [6] Beginning with Cato in the early second century BC, politicians of the Roman Republic competed with one another by building basilicas bearing their names in the Forum Romanum, the centre of ancient Rome. [12] At Londinium however, there was probably no temple at all attached to the original basilica, but instead a contemporary temple was constructed nearby. [24] By 350 in Sofia (Serdica), a monumental basilica – the Church of Hagia Sophia – covered earlier structures including a Christian chapel, an oratory, and a cemetery dated to c. Design and construction. [63] Some column capitals were of marble from Greece identical to those in Basilica of San Vitale and must have been imported from the Byzantine centre along with the columns and some of the opus sectile.

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